- Video about Christopher Columbus.
- Enlaces en español.
- La Edad Moderna
- Brújula en mano, hacia nuevos mundos
- Descubrimiento de América
- ***Imperio español
- Final de imperio español
- Ciencia y cultura en la Edad Moderna
- Sociedad en la Edad Moderna
- Links in English.
- Final task: Click on this PPT and create a Timeline about the Modern Age in Spain.
Ejemplo de línea del tiempo
Publish by Mrs. Egea
Here you are the timetable of the class!
THE CATHOLIC MONACRCHS
1.1The union of Castile and León.
The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (1469) represented the dynastic union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon. After taking the throne, the monarchs started building a modern state. The main aspects of their reign were:
- Formation and consolidation of an authoritarian monarchy.
- The conquest of the Kingdom of Granada (1492), concluded the Christian conquest (started in the 8th century by the Christian territories, known as the re-conquest by the Christian chroniclers of the time).
- The creation of the Tribunal of the Holy Office or Inquisition as a tool to guarantee religious unity in their territory.
- The expulsion of the Jews took place in 1492 and the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity (Moriscos).
- The discovery of America and the start of the conquest and colonisation of the continent.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office or Inquisition was created by the Catholic Monarchs as a tool to guarantee religious unity in their kingdoms. The inquisitors persecuted converts and heretics. This institution survived until the 19th century.
1.3Castile and the discovery of America
In August 1492, Genoese seafarer Christopher Columbus set sail from Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) on an expedition with two caravels, the Pinta and the Niña, and a carrack or nau, the Santa María. On 12 October 1492, after several weeks at sea, Columbus and his men landed on the island of Guanahaní, named San Salvador by Columbus. They had reached America.
In 1493, Columbus returned from his first voyage with news of the land he had discovered. In October that same year, Castile sent a great fleet to start conquering the Indies (Columbus thought he had arrived in Asia).
Christopher Columbus died in 1506, convinced that he had reached Asia. It was the seafarer Amérigo Vespucci who first suggested that the land was part of a new continent.
1.3.1The organisation of the Indies
After the discovery of America, the Kingdom of Castile organised the exploitation of the New World by creating the House of Trade in Seville (1503), which controlled and regulated the traffic of goods and people between Spain and America.
The port of Seville had a monopoly over trade with the Indies. Until the 18th century, it was the gateway from and to the New World.
The process of conquering the Americas also involved:
- Imposition of the Spanish language and the evangelisation of the indigenous population.
- Formation of a society of mixed ethnicity.
- The conquest of the Aztec Empire (1521).
- The conquest of the Inca Empire (1533).
- Organisation of the territories into viceroyalties.
- Creation of the Council of the Indies, the institution from which the Americas were governed.
Castile created a genuine colonial empire that controlled and economically exploited an enormous territory. The resources were exploited using indigenous labour, who worked under hard conditions. Thanks to this, Castile was able to import large quantities of precious metals.
THE REING OF THE HABSBURGS IN SPAIN
The Catholic Monarchs pursued an important policy of matrimonial alliances with the main European powers. The marriage between Joanna the Mad (Isabel and Ferdinand’s daughter) and the archduke Philip the Handsome (son of Maximilian of Austria and Maria of Austria) led to the birth of the Hispanic monarchy and the ascent of a new dynasty: the Habsburgs.
2.1The monarchs of the House of Habsburg
The monarchs of the Hapsburg dynasty, known in Spanish as the Austrias, ruled Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries. A distinction is often drawn between the Senior Habsburgs (Charles I and Philip II) and the Junior Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II).
The Senior Habsburgs Charles I
He inherited extensive territories (Castile, Aragon, American possessions, Holland, Austria, Naples, Milan and Sicily) and was crowned Emperor of Germany. He had to face the emergence of Protestantism. Philip II
He inherited his father’s possessions (except for Germany and Austria) and annexed Portugal in 1580. He also made Madrid the capital of the monarchy, establishing his court in the city. He was a great defender of the Catholic faith. His reign included conflicts between the Protestants and the Turks.
The Junior Habsburgs Philip III
He expelled the Moriscos (1609) and participated in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). Philip IV
He had to face internal revolts and accept the independence of Holland and Portugal. He delegated government to his court favourite or ‘valido’, the Count-Duke of Olivares. The signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) with France led to the loss of the territories located on the other side of this mountain range. Charles II
He died without an heir in 1700, which led to the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1715).
2.2The decline of Spain’s monarchy
During the 17th century, the whole of Europe was immersed in a deep economic crisis that had a significant impact on Spain’s monarchy.
In spite of the large amount of precious metals arriving from America, wars and the high costs of maintaining the Empire caused several bankruptcies. In addition to this, Spain has to face epidemics of the plague, bad harvests, rising prices, internal revolts, etc.
The 17th century saw the end of Hispanic hegemony on the continent. During the reign of Charles II, there was some recovery, but his death without an heir triggered an international conflict: the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1715).
2.3The War of the Spanish Succession
In 1700, Charles II died without any heirs, which led to the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1715). The conflict pitted Castile against France, supporters of Philip V (grandson of Louis XIV of France) against the Crown of Aragon and the remaining European powers, supporters of Archduke Charles (the Emperor’s son).
The signing of the treaty of Utrecht (1713) was the end of the conflict and Philip of Anjou became the new king of Spain with the name of Philip V. This brought a new dynasty the throne: the house of Bourbon.
THE HOUSE OF BOURBON
3.1The monarchs of the House of Bourbon
The house of Bourbon, a dynasty of French origin, started to reign in Spain at the beginning of the 18th century.
The first Bourbons Philip V
He won the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1715). He introduced absolutism and centralism to Spain through the Nueva Planta decrees. Ferdinand VI
He granted part of the powerful American trade to England. Charles III
His reign is an example of enlightened absolutism in Spain. He made many economic, administrative, cultural and urban reforms.
3.2The Bourbon monarchy in Spain
By way of the Nueva Planta decrees, the Bourbons imposed the laws of Castile in the territories of the former Crown of Aragon, which had supported Archduke Charles during the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1715). With this, they unified the different Hispanic kingdoms at a political and legislative level, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Spain.
The monarchs held all the powers of the State in their hands (legislative, executive and judicial). They also appointed the members of the government and the civil service. Territorially speaking, Spain was divided into corregimientos (rural subdivisions of a municipality) and general captaincies.
THE SPANISH GOLDEN AGE
During the modern age, Spanish culture enjoyed a time of splendour, which is known as the Spanish Golden Age. There were two artistic periods: the Renaissance and the Baroque periods.
4.1The Renaissance in Spain
The Renaissance was an artistic style originating in Italy, which came to Spain during the 16th century and whose main features are:
- The recovery of classical art.
- The central role of human beings (anthropocentrism).
- An appreciation of beauty and nature.
- El Greco was the most representative artist, although Alonso Berruguete, Diego de Siloé and Juan de Herrera were important.
4.2The Baroque movement in our territory.
The Baroque artistic style emerged in Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries. Its main characteristics are:
- Use of the contrast between light and dark.
- The importance given to movement and expressiveness.
- The great strength and drama of the works.
- The abundance of exuberant and highly decorated shapes.
- Diego Velázquez is its most representative artist, although Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Francisco de Zurbarán and José Ribera were also outstanding.
The Golden Age
During the 16th and 17th century, Spanish culture and art enjoyed a time of splendour, known as the Golden Age. The most important names in the world of literature were author Miguel de Cervantes, poets Luis de Góngora and Francisco de Quevedo and playwrights Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderón de la Barca.
NEOCLASSICISM IN SPAIN
Neoclassicism arrived in Spain at the beginning of the 18th century, although it coexisted with the Baroque style until the middle of the century. Neoclassical art is characterised by:
- Imitation of classical art.
- Harmony and order in compositions.
- Simplicity in comparison to Baroque style artifices.
Some of its main exponents in Spain were the painter Anton Raphael Mengs and architects Francesco Sabatini and Juan de Villanueva.
|1474-1516||The reign of the Catholic Monarchs.|
|1492||The conquest of Granada.
The expulsion of the Jews.
The discovery of America.
|1517-1556||The reign of Charles I|
|1519||Charles I, emperor of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire as Charles V.|
|1521||Conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés.|
|1533||Conquest of Peru by Francisco Pizarro.|
|1556-1598||Reign of Philip II.|
|1571||Madrid, capital of Spain’s monarchy|
|1580||Portugal is annexed to the Hispanic monarchy.|
|1598-1621||The reign of Philip III.|
|1609||The expulsion of the Moriscos.|
|1621-1665||The reign of Philip IV.|
|1640||The uprisings of Portugal, Catalonia and Andalusia.|
|1640-1668||The Portuguese War of Independence.|
|1665-1700||Reign of Charles II.|
|1701-1715||The War of the Spanish Succession.|
|1700-1746||The reign of Philip V.|
|1746-1759||The reign of Ferdinand VI.|
|1759-1788||The reign of Charles III.|
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